People at Sera People at Sera by José Ignacio Cabezón March 1, 2004 Copyright © 2004 by José Ignacio Cabezón and THL. Tibetan Buddhism subjects 884 For more information about this term, see Full Entry below.Subjects Religious SectsBuddhismFull EntryRelated Subjects (60)Related Images (982)Related Audio-video (507)Related Texts (6)Related Sources (2) Monastic College subjects 3069 For more information about this term, see Full Entry below.Subjects Geographical FeaturesReligiousBuddhist & Bön Religious SettlementsMonastic SubdivisionsFull EntryRelated Subjects (8)Related Places (21)Related Images (109)Related Audio-video (1)Related Texts (3) Lhasa places 637 For more information about this term, see Full Entry below.Feature Type City, ADM3, Capital of a 1st order administrative divisionPlaces EarthAsiaChinaTibet Autonomous RegionLhasaFull EntryRelated Subjects (3)Related Places (996)Related Images (14303)Related Texts (36)Related Audio-video (791)Related Sources (3) Sera Monastery places 433 For more information about this term, see Full Entry below.Feature Type Large MonasteryFull EntryRelated Subjects (4)Related Places (1)Related Images (3878)Related Texts (27)Related Audio-video (60) Introduction A monk of Samlo Regional House (Samlo Khangtsen), Sera-Tibet. Like most Tibetan monasteries, Sera has always been a crossroads for a variety of people from different walks of life. First and foremost, of course, it is home to a large population of resident monks (drapa).[1] Before 1959, monks came to the monastery from different parts of Tibet, but also from Mongolia and Bhutan, and from several Tibetan-speaking Indian border-regions, like Ladakh and Mön (presently part of the state of Arunachal Pradesh, India). There are even a few cases of Europeans and Japanese living and studying at Sera.[2] Although foreigners are no longer allowed to live at Sera-Tibet, Sera-India has had a small population of non-Tibetan monks in residence from the 1980s to the present day. Recently, the Foundation for the Preservation of the Mahayana Tradition (FPMT) has even inaugurated a residence for foreign monks at Sera-India, called Shedrup Zungdrel Ling, “The Place for Combining Study and Practice.” But the overwhelming majority of monks at Sera were, and continue to be, ethnic Tibetans. Of course, on a daily basis there are many non-monks that can be found within the perimeter walls of the monastery (in both India and in Tibet). In Tibet, for example, pilgrims (nekhorkhen) from all over the Tibetan cultural sphere (and increasingly from non-Tibetan regions of China, and from abroad) will find their way through the monastery’s gates. Sera-India attracts pilgrims chiefly from the refugee Tibetan population, but it has also become a pilgrimage site for the non-Tibetan students of senior Sera monks who have founded centers abroad. Pilgrims from the Penpo region of Tibet pose for a picture in Sera, Tibet. As the closest to Lhasa of the three large Gelukpa academies, with over two-dozen temples in the space of a single square kilometer, Sera-Tibet is also popular with local lay worshippers (chönjel dronkhen) from the capital and surrounding areas. These individuals will often come to spend the day at Sera, where they make offerings in temples, request prayers and rituals, visit monk acquaintances and relatives, and have lunch under the trees behind Sera’s restaurant. Sera-India maintains this same type of close relationship with lay Tibetan in the nearby settlement camps. In recent years, Lhasa school children (lopdruk) come to the monastery on field trips. For them Sera is a place to learn about their cultural heritage. In India, groups of school children – both Tibetan and Indian – visit the monastery on a regular basis. And for some years now Sera, in both India and in Tibet, has been a popular stop for groups of foreign students who are part of education-abroad programs. Local worshippers make butter offerings into the butter-lamps in a chapel of one of Sera’s regional houses (Sera-Tibet). A young Tibetan girl, art supplies in hand, about to enter one of Sera’s temples in Tibet. Nepali metalworkers, who live in the monastery, creating a statue in Sera-India. Even before 1959 some lay people lived within the monastery. For example, the residences of some of the more important lamas had special rooms for the lama’s parents. Abbots had young, non-monk workers who would serve as their attendants; they would live in the abbots’ household, and would accompany them as stewards whenever the abbot left his quarters. Laymen contracted for specific work – masons, artists, woodworkers, and construction workers – would often reside within the monastery until their work was completed. The majority of lay workers (for example, the lay kitchen staff), however, lived outside of the monastery. In both India and in Tibet, even today, because of the immense amount of construction and restoration work that needs be done in Tibet, non-monk workers (lechepa) from different parts of the country take up temporary residence in the monastery for short periods of time while in the monastery’s employ. In India, construction workers are usually members of the local Indian and Tibetan communities, and these individuals return to their homes at the end of the day. Because of the dearth of artisans in these communities, however, Tibetan painters and Nepali metal workers will often be brought in for specific projects, residing within the monastery for the duration of their contracted work. A group of young Indian men visit Sera-India as tourists. Since the opening of Tibet to foreign tourism in the 1980s, Sera has become a site for tourists (dakorwa). Especially during the summer months, busloads of ethnic-Chinese sightseers, and tourists from every corner of the world, visit the monastery on a daily basis. Tourists, of course, are a new addition to the types of people found at Sera, unknown in its history until the last two decades. In Tibet, the monastery survives in part from the revenues of tourism, charging foreigners a hefty admission fee. Sera-India is also increasingly becoming a tourist venue. It is now found in some of the tourist guidebooks of south India. Increasingly, Indian tourists come to Sera in large numbers. Finally, and most recently, Sera has become the site for the Sera Project. In Tibet this has brought to the monastery a team of scholars and research assistants from the Universities of California and Virginia, and from the Tibet Academy of Social Sciences. Researchers (zhimjuk chekhen) are of course different from tourists and pilgrims, falling in a category all their own, but we too are today a part of the Sera landscape. José I. Cabezón, the director of the Sera Project, interviews monks in Sera, Tibet, 2002. Many different kinds people, therefore, can be found at Sera on any given day. They come to the monastery from different places, and with different goals and motivations. By Tibetan standards, Sera has always been relatively cosmopolitan. And globalization is making it increasingly more so. In this portion of the Sera Project website, you will learn about all of these various kinds of people. Another portion of the “People” section – presently under construction, will allow you to learn more about some of the more important figures in Sera’s history: its famous lamas, abbots, and geshés. In the sections that follow, though, our emphasis has been on giving you a sense of the types of people who lived in the monastery, and those who visited it. Click on the various links in the side menu to learn more about that particular group: Monks Pilgrims Worshippers Tourists     Glossary Note: The glossary is organized into sections according to the main language of each entry. The first section contains Tibetan words organized in Tibetan alphabetical order. To jump to the entries that begin with a particular Tibetan root letter, click on that letter below. Columns of information for all entries are listed in this order: THL Extended Wylie transliteration of the term, THL Phonetic rendering of the term, the English translation, the Sanskrit equivalent, associated dates, and the type of term. To view the glossary sorted by any one of these rubrics, click on the corresponding label (such as “Phonetics”) at the top of its column.Ka | Kha | Ga | Nga | Cha | Ja | Nya | Ta | Tha | Da | Na | Pa | Pha | Ba | Ma | tsa | Tsha | Zha | Za | Ya | Ra | La | Sha | Sa | Ha | A | SanskritKaExtended WyliePhoneticsEnglishSanskritDateTypekong po khang tshan Kongpo KhangtsenKongpo Regional House Monastery bka’ ’gyur Kangyurtranslated words of the Buddha, the Tibetan Buddhist canon Title collection bkra shis tshe ring Trashi TseringTashi Tsering Person sku zhabs kuzhapreverend Term skyid sdug kyiduka monk officially “on the books” Term KhaExtended WyliePhoneticsEnglishSanskritDateTypekhang tshan khangtsenregional house Term khang tshan gyi bla ma khangtsengyi lamalama of the regional house Term khang tshan dge rgan khangtsen gegenregional house “teacher” Term khams Kham Place khungs khungorganizational affiliation Term khri zur lhun grub brtson ’grus Trizur Lhündrup Tsöndrü Person mkhan po khenpoabbot Term mkhan zur blo bzang tshe ring Khenzur Lopsang Tsering Person mkhan rin po che blo bzang don yod Khen Rinpoché Lopsang Dönyö Person GaExtended WyliePhoneticsEnglishSanskritDateTypego sa gosastatus Term grwa dramonk Term grwa rgyun dragyüncontinuing monks Term grwa pa drapamonk Term grwa pa dkyus ma drapa kyümaordinary monk Term grwa tshang dratsangcollege Term grwa tshang gi bla ma dratsanggi lamalama of the college Term grwa tshang stod pa Dratsang TöpaTöpa College Monastery grwa tshang byes Dratsang JéJé College Monastery grwa tshang smad Dratsang MéMé College Monastery grwa log dralokmonks who leave the monkhood Term gling ka lingkafraternal unit of dopdops; park Term gling gseb lingsepa geshé degree granted jointly by Sera’s two philosophical colleges Term dga’ ldan Ganden Monastery dga’ ldan khri pa Ganden TripaThrone Holder of Ganden Term dge bkod geködisciplinarian Term dge snyen genyenthe five basic vows of a layman upāsaka Term dge ’dun lhag ma bcu gsum gendün lhakma chuksumthirteen community-residue Term dge tshul getsülnovice Term dge lugs Geluk Organization dge bshes geshé Term dge bshes bstan dar Geshé Tendar Person dge bshes bzod pa Geshé ZöpaGeshe Sopa Author dge bshes ye shes dbang phyug Geshé Yeshé Wangchuk Author dge bshes rab brtan Geshé RaptenGeshe Rabten Person dge bshes lha ram pa geshé lharampaa geshé degree granted by the Tibetan government in public examinations Term dge bshes lhun grub thabs mkhas Geshé Lhündrup Tapkhé Person dge slong gelongfully ordained monk Term dge slong ma gelongmafully ordained nun Term dgong bcad gongchéa monastic who fasts in the evening Term ’gyed gyémonetary donations (for the monastic assembly) Term ’grel pa drelpacommentary Term rgan byams pa Gen Jampa Person rgyal sprul ho thog thu Gyeltrül Hotoktuincarnation of a previous king/regent Term sgo gnyer gonyerdoor keeper, temple attendant Term sgrigs zhugs drikzhukofficial membership Term NgaExtended WyliePhoneticsEnglishSanskritDateTypengag dbang gsung rab mthu stobs Ngawang Sungrap Tutop 1874-1952 Person nges ’byung ngenjungrenunciation Term sngags pa NgakpaTantric College, Ngakpa College Monastery sngags pa grwa tshang Ngakpa DratsangTantric College, Ngakpa College Monastery ChaExtended WyliePhoneticsEnglishSanskritDateTypechab ril chaprilwater bearers, assembly monitors Term chen mo lags chenmolakgreat one, chant master Term chos mdzad chöndzéreligious devotee Term chos gzhi chözhiendowment Term mchod mjal ’gro mkhan chönjel dronkhenworshipper Term JaExtended WyliePhoneticsEnglishSanskritDateTypeja ma jamatea master Term ’jang dgun chos jang günchöwinter logic debate Term NyaExtended WyliePhoneticsEnglishSanskritDateTypegnyer tshang nyertsangkeeper of the stores Term TaExtended WyliePhoneticsEnglishSanskritDateTypetre hor TrehorTrehor Regional House Place lta skor ba takorwatourist Term stag brag khri sprul Takdrak TritrülTakdrak Rinpoché 1874-1952 Person stod pa TöpaTöpa College Monastery bstan ’gyur Tengyurthe commentarial portion of the Tibetan Buddhist canon Title collection ThaExtended WyliePhoneticsEnglishSanskritDateTypethang ka tangkascroll painting Term thub bstan ’jam dpal ye shes bstan pa’i rgyal mtshan Tupten Jampel Yeshé Tenpé Gyeltsen d. 1947 Person DaExtended WyliePhoneticsEnglishSanskritDateTypedung dkar rin po che Dungkar Rinpoché Author dwags po Dakpo Place drung yig drungyikcollege secretary Term gdan sa densagreat seat Term ’dul ba Dülwathe corpus of monastic rules vinaya Doxographical Category rdo rams pa dorampaa geshé degree granted by Drepung Monastery Term ldob ldob dopdoppunk monk, worker monk Term sde dge Degé Organization sde gnod denömajor subdivision of the Buddhist canon piṭaka Title collection sde srid sang rgyas rgya mtsho Desi Sanggyé Gyatso Author sdom pa dompaformal vows Term NaExtended WyliePhoneticsEnglishSanskritDateTypenor bu gling kha Norbu Lingkha Building gnas ’khor mkhan nekhorkhenpilgrim Term PaExtended WyliePhoneticsEnglishSanskritDateTypepe cin PechinBeijing Publication Place po ta la Potala Building dpe cha ba pechawatextualist Term spyi rgan chigenchief elder Term spyi pa chipafinancial officer Term spyi gso chisoprovost, “caretaker of (the monks) in general” Term sprul sku trülkurecognized incarnation Term PhaExtended WyliePhoneticsEnglishSanskritDateTypepham pa pampathe four defeats Term phyag mdzod chandzötreasurer Term ’phan po Penpo Place BaExtended WyliePhoneticsEnglishSanskritDateTypebai ḍūrya ser po Baidurya Serpo Text byang Chang Place byams chen chos rje Jamchen Chöjé 1354-1435 Person byams smon sgrub mchod Jammön DrupchöMaitreya Prayer/Offering Festival Festival byes JéJé College Monastery bla kha bcu Lakha ChuCouncil of Ten Lamas Term bla spyi lachilama society Term bla brang labranga lama’s household Term bla ma lamaanyone who serves as the spiritual mentor of anyone else, recognized incarnation guru Term bla ma cung khag lama chungkhak“small” lama Term bla ma che khag lama chekhak“great” lama Term bla ma ’bring khag lama dringkhak“medium” lama Term dbu mdzad umdzéleader, chant master Term dbyar chos pa yarchöpasummer session staff Term ’bras spungs Drepung Monastery MaExtended WyliePhoneticsEnglishSanskritDateTypemi rigs dpe skrun khang Mirik PetrünkhangNationalities Publishing House Publisher mon Mön Place dmigs gsal mikselspecial, exceptional treatment Term smad MéMé College Monastery smon lam chen mo Mönlam ChenmoGreat Prayer Festival Festival tsaExtended WyliePhoneticsEnglishSanskritDateTypetsong kha pa Tsongkhapa Person gtsang pa khang tshan Tsangpa KhangtsenTsangpa Regional House Monastery brtsi bzhag tsizhakaccounting Term brtson ’grus tsöndrüwill, diligence Term TshaExtended WyliePhoneticsEnglishSanskritDateTypetshe dbang rin chen Tsewang Rinchen Editor tshe smon gling Tsemönling Monastery tshogs chen TsokchenGreat Assembly Hall Building tshogs chen gyi bla ma tsokchengyi lamalama of the Great Assembly Term tshogs gtam chen mo tsoktam chenmoThe Great Exhortation Term tshogs ’du tsokduboard of governance Term tshogs ram tsokrama geshé degree granted by the Tibetan government in public examinations Term ZhaExtended WyliePhoneticsEnglishSanskritDateTypezhal ngo zhelngolieutenant Term zhib ’jug byed mkhan zhimjuk jenkhenresearcher Term gzhi dgon zhigönhome monastery Monastery ZaExtended WyliePhoneticsEnglishSanskritDateTypegzims khang sde pa zimkhang deparepresentative to the Tibetan government; “government official in charge of the rooms” Term YaExtended WyliePhoneticsEnglishSanskritDateTypeyang srid yangsirecognized incarnation Term yig cha yikchatextbook Term yongs ’dzin yongdzinlive-in tutor Term RaExtended WyliePhoneticsEnglishSanskritDateTyperab tu byung raptujungmonk Term rab byung rapjungrenunciate Term rig pa rikpaintellect Term rig pa chung chung rikpa chungchunglittle by way of intelligence Term rig pa mi ’dug rikpa mindukno intelligence at all Term rigs che chung tshogs langs rik chechung tsoklangLesser and Greater Lineage Debuts Term rigs ram rikrama geshé degree granted internally by one of Sera’s two philosophical colleges Term rigs ram pa rikrampaa geshé degree granted internally by one of Sera’s two philosophical colleges Term rol dbyangs pa rölyangpamusician Term rwa sgreng Radreng Monastery rwa sgreng rin po che Radreng RinpochéReting Rinpoché Person rwa sgreng rin po che sku phreng lnga pa Radreng Rinpoché Kutreng Ngapathe Fifth Radreng Rinpoché d. 1947 Person LaExtended WyliePhoneticsEnglishSanskritDateTypelas léritual action Term las sne pa lenepaadministrator Term las byed pa lejepaworker Term lo gsar LosarNew Year Festival Festival log lokto return, toturn away from; a mistake Term ShaExtended WyliePhoneticsEnglishSanskritDateTypeshag shakhousehold Term shag chas shakchémonk’s share (of the estate) Term shag tshan shaktsenhousehold Term shar pa sprul sku Sharpa Trülku Person shar pa bla brang Sharpa Labrang Organization bshad sgrub zung ’brel gling Shedrup Zungdrel LingThe Place for Combining Study and Practice Place SaExtended WyliePhoneticsEnglishSanskritDateTypese ra Sera Monastery se ra khri pa Sera TripaSera Throne Holder Term se ra theg chen gling Sera Tekchen Ling Text ser smad thos bsam nor bu gling grwa tshang gi chos ’byung lo rgyus nor bu’i phreng ba Sermé Tösam Norbuling Dratsanggi Chöjung Logyü Norbü Trengga Text ser smad dpe mdzod khang Sermé Pendzökhang Publisher slob phrug lopdrukschool children Term gso sbyong sojongpurification/confession ritual Term bsam blo khang tshan Samlo KhangtsenSamlo Regional House Place HaExtended WyliePhoneticsEnglishSanskritDateTypehar gdong khang tshan Hamdong KhangtsenHamdong Regional House Place lha bris pa lhapripapainter Term lha bzo ba lhapzowasculpter Term lha ram lharama geshé degree granted by the Tibetan government in public examinations Term lha sa Lhasa Place AExtended WyliePhoneticsEnglishSanskritDateTypea mdo Amdo Place a ni aninun Term SanskritExtended WyliePhoneticsEnglishSanskritDateType gandhara Place the Jé College tutelary deity hayagrīva Buddhist deity the vinaya which Chinese Buddhists follow mahāsāṃghika vinaya Doxographical Category the vinaya which Tibetan Buddhists follow mūlasarvāstivāda vinaya Doxographical Category a commentary on the vinaya nidāna Doxographical Category lasting happiness, permanent peace nirvāṇa Term a text containing the Theravāda Buddhist vows patimokkha Text ascetic śramaṇa Term a type of Buddhism practiced in most of Southeast Asia theravāda Doxographical Category the vinaya which Theravāda Buddhists follow theravāda vinaya Doxographical Category a commentary on the vinaya found in the Tengyur vinayasūtra Text the first text of the vinaya vinayavastu Text Notes [1] In Lhasa especially there was a more “polite” term used for monks, kuzhap. But in the great monastic academies, the term kuzhap was reserved for recognized incarnations (trülku) also called lamas. [2] For example, we know that the Italian Catholic missionary Ippolito Desideri (1684-1732) lived and studied at Sera for a short time, and that the Zen monk Kawaguchi Ekai also lived at Sera in the early part of the twentieth century.   #!essay=/cabezon/sera/people/