Mindfulness-Based Professional Development Programs for Teachers: A Research Brief Mindfulness-Based Professional Development Programs for Teachers A Research Brief Executive Summary According to a recent national survey, K-12 teachers today report the highest levels of daily stress of any occupational group. Research shows that such high stress negatively impacts teachers’ physical and mental health, reduces their capacity to cultivate effective learning environments, and measurably diminishes their students’ mental and physical health and academic achievement. Notably, teacher training programs rarely address the topic of stress or how to manage it; however, researchers are now exploring whether and how mindfulness-based programs might better support teachers by reducing their experiences of stress and enhancing their classroom performance. A number of mindfulness-based teacher training programs have been developed, and initial studies of them have offered optimistic results. Certain mindfulness trainings for teachers appear to significantly reduce stress and burnout. Teachers who complete mindfulness trainings also appear to cultivate greater social and emotional competence and enjoy enhanced physical and mental wellbeing. Early results also suggest an indirect positive impact on students—they tend to demonstrate greater classroom engagement as well as improved classroom behavior after their teachers complete certain mindfulness-based training programs. Preliminary research suggests that mindfulness trainings may be less effective, however, in reducing the symptoms of more significant mental health issues that teachers may experience, such as anxiety and depression. Early data also reveals that benefits to teachers’ classroom performances as a result of mindfulness training are limited. Thus, it may be best to view mindfulness training as an important complement to other professional development efforts rather than a panacea for the many challenges that teachers face. Introduction Many of today’s teachers experience high levels of stress and burnout—the highest rates of any occupational group according to a recent Gallup poll.1 The implications of this phenomenon are extensive. Stress and burnout impact teachers’ physical and mental health, as well as their capacity to foster positive classroom environments and engage in effective instruction. Students’ own mental and physical health, as well as their academic achievement, are also negatively affected. Consider, for example, a few key findings on teacher stress: The first school-based study of the physical impacts of workplace stress found that teachers who experience chronic stress as well as high levels of exhaustion have higher allostatic load (AL) scores than their peers. AL scores reflect both the short-term physiological tolls of chronic stress as well as the potential long-term effects of stress on the body. Higher AL scores are hypothesized to indicate a greater risk for disease later in life.2 Teachers’ stress is also correlated with diminished mental health among students. University of Maryland scholars researched the impact of classroom environments on students’ mental health. They examined a nationally representative sample of 10,700 first graders and found that students experienced increased internalizing and externalizing disorders in classrooms where teachers reported high levels of stress.3 Researchers at the University of British Columbia tracked the stress hormones of 400 students as they moved between classes. Students’ cortisol levels, a biological indicator of stress, were higher in classes where teachers reported increased symptoms of burnout. In fact, the levels of teacher burnout significantly predicted variability in students’ cortisol levels. This study extended research on emotional contagion to K-12 classrooms, suggesting that classroom stress can be “contagious.”4 Teacher stress is also negatively correlated with student learning. Teachers who experience high levels of stress display fewer effective teaching strategies than peers who report lower stress levels. Specifically, stressed-out teachers show diminished capacities for clear instruction and effective classroom management.5 Students taught by stressed and burned-out teachers have more behavior problems, lower levels of social adjustment, and reduced academic performance.6 Research also suggests that teachers who experience high levels of stress are less capable of creating a positive classroom climate for their students.7 Positive classroom environments appear to be linked intimately with teacher wellbeing: a study of 730 kindergarten classrooms found that teachers’ psychological variables had more impact on classroom climate than their levels of education or experience.8 Teachers’ wellbeing is a fundamental component of student success. In fact, although teachers have been taught to primarily focus on what they are teaching, psychologist Louis Cozolino argues that “evolutionary history and current neuroscience suggest that it is who they are and the emotional environment in the classroom they are able to create that are the fundamental regulators of their students’ learning.”9 Notably, unlike other human-service professions, very few teacher-education or professional development programs teach educators the skills they need to navigate common occupational stressors.10 Recently, researchers have explored whether mindfulness trainings can serve as a useful supplement to traditional teacher development programs, examining whether increased mindfulness can help teachers reduce their experiences of stress and burnout, increase their overall wellbeing, and help them perform well in the classroom. Mindfulness trainings often use a series of structured practices (e.g., breath meditation, body scans) to teach participants skills for dealing with stress and uncertainty.11 This is primarily achieved by cultivating a sense of acceptance and positive regard toward whatever arises in the present moment. A growing body of research reveals that when implemented regularly these practices affect the neural structures of the brain and may lead to long-term benefits for practitioners.12 Mindfulness is perhaps most commonly defined as “the awareness that emerges through paying attention on purpose, in the present moment, and nonjudgmentally to the unfolding of experience moment by moment.”13 Mindful awareness focuses on the cultivation of sustained attention and is evidenced by an individual’s capacity to “exercise volitional control over [his or her] physical and mental activity.’’14 When a person is experiencing mindful awareness, he or she is “fully present to what is happening in the here and now, rather than dwelling on the past or the future.”15 Mindfulness is not simply a sustained form of concentration, however. Mindfulness is, in large part, defined by the quality of awareness that emerges through the practice of mindful attention. This awareness is marked by “an internal stance of positive regard and openness to things as they are.”16 Mindfulness, therefore, also includes “‘heartfulness’ in that it promotes both an open-minded and open-hearted apperception of the world.”17 From this perspective, “mindfulness is a way of being in the world with kindness and compassion toward oneself and others.”18 Research into the potential benefits of mindfulness trainings for teachers is still in its preliminary stages; however, the empirical data and qualitative information collected thus far are encouraging. Key Findings Mindfulness In Teachers Studies of both primary and secondary school teachers confirm that mindfulness is a capacity that can be taught and grown. At least 12 empirically measured studies focusing on PreK-12 teachers found that mindfulness training led to enhanced mindfulness among participants. Indeed, the results were nearly universal; only one study found no significant shift.19 Teachers’ Mental Health Preliminary research also indicates that mindfulness training may reduce teachers’ psychological distress.20 Specifically, early studies suggest that teachers experience significant reductions in stress21 and burnout22 as a result of their participation in mindfulness interventions. Research also indicates that mindfulness-based training is associated with decreased rumination23among participants, as well as reductions in hostility, paranoid ideation, phobic anxiety, and psychosis.24 Thus far, however, studies examining whether mindfulness training can reduce teachers’ experiences of anxiety,25 depression,26somatization27or negative affect28 have been inconclusive, with some showing significant effects and others not. Physical Health Benefits for Teachers Preliminary research suggests that mindfulness training may improve teachers’ physical health. Specifically, early research indicates that mindfulness-based training for teachers is associated with improved sleep29as well as reductions in teachers’ blood pressure30 and cortisol levels.31 In several studies, teachers also reported reductions in their symptoms of physical distress.32 Mindfulness training does not appear to impact teachers’ resting heart rates.33 Social and Emotional Competence Studies indicate that mindfulness-based training significantly increased teachers’ affective self-regulation.34 Studies also report that mindfulness training enhances teachers’ interpersonal skills, leading to heightened interpersonal sensitivity,35empathic concern,36compassion,37prosocial responding,38and workplace inclusiveness,39 as well as teachers’ dispositional forgiveness, situational forgiveness, and efficacy for forgiving students.40 Training Helps Cultivate Personal Wellbeing Preliminary findings indicate that mindfulness training is associated with an enhanced sense of inner calm and balance41 as well as significant increases in teachers’ self-compassion.42 The benefits of mindfulness may also extend beyond the classroom. In one study teachers reported experiencing greater satisfaction with family life,43 while another found that mindfulness training was associated with personal growth.44 The research is less conclusive on the association between mindfulness training and positive affect.45 The impact of mindfulness training on teachers’ classroom performance is mixed, but studies suggest that students may benefit indirectly. Research indicates that mindfulness training positively impacts teachers’ orientation to student motivation, leading them to adopt an autonomy-supportive motivational style.46 Another study found that both teachers and students engage in greater classroom productivity as a result of mindfulness training.47 On the other hand studies examining teachers’ classroom management skills48 and self-efficacy49 in the classroom have been mixed. Mindfulness-training also does not appear to increase teachers’ engagement,50 creativity,51 or job satisfaction.52 Research indicates that mindfulness training for teachers may have indirect benefits for students. Preliminary results suggest that when teachers participate in mindfulness training, students’ classroom engagement increases53 and their classroom behavior improves.54 Research Confirms Empirical Findings In interviews with researchers, teachers have reported that practicing mindfulness positively impacts their mental health. Specifically, teachers have reported that mindfulness training enables them to more effectively manage stress55 and develop greater self-knowledge.56 Teachers have also reported experiencing physical benefits from mindfulness training, specifically increased awareness of their bodies57 and the physical impacts of stress.58 Additionally, teachers have identified ways in which mindfulness training helped them develop greater social and emotional competence. Specifically, they have reported that learning mindfulness helped them become less emotionally reactive59 and gain perspective in emotionally difficult situations60 and enhanced their problem-solving capacities.61 Teachers have indicated enhanced wellbeing as a result of mindfulness training. They have reported feeling more calm and relaxed as a result of mindfulness practices62 and observing improvements in their personal lives, particularly in their interpersonal relationships.63 Finally, when asked to reflect on how practicing mindfulness impacts their experiences in the classroom, teachers have described an increased capacity to regulate their attention64 and an enhanced ability to prioritize the most important parts of their curricula.65 Teachers have also reported that practicing mindfulness has helped them improve their relationships with their students, enabling them to be more compassionate,66 respond more effectively to behavioral issues,67 and build greater classroom rapport.68 Top Mindfulness-Based Teacher Training Programs The following list provides a brief overview of the most prominent, empirically-supported mindfulness programs available and their associated impacts on teachers in seven domains: (1) Mindfulness; (2) Mental Health; (3) Burnout; (4) Physical Health; (5) Social and Emotional Competence; (6) Wellbeing; and (7) Classroom Performance/Effectiveness.            Cultivating Awareness and Resilience in Education (CARE) CARE is a year-long program designed to reduce teachers’ stress and support the development of teachers’ social and emotional competencies. The core of the program consists of four, day-long professional development experiences that typically are spread out throughout the school year, though they can be taught in one week prior to the start of school. In addition to the day-long professional development experiences, participants receive a program workbook as well as recorded mindfulness practices to support them in developing home practices. Coaches are also available to work with teachers one-on-one, conducting personalized phone calls in between the day-long sessions. The total training is 32 hours. CARE was developed with support from the Garrison Institute by Patricia Jennings, a professor of curriculum and instruction at the University of Virginia; Christa Turksma, a clinical psychologist with an expertise in child development; and Richard C. Brown, a professor of contemplative education at Naropa University. The program is available from CREATE for Education, an educational consulting group that focuses on social and emotional learning. CARE for Teachers has been evaluated in four empirical studies and two qualitative studies. Findings indicate the following impacts: Cultivating Awareness and Resilience in Education (CARE) for Teachers Domain Variable Associated Studies Mindfulness Increased mindfulness Jennings, et al., 2011 Jennings, et al., 2013 Jennings, et al., 2017 Mental Health Reduced psychological distress Jennings, et al., 2017 Burnout Reduced task-related hurry Jennings, et al., 2011 Reduced burnout Jennings, et al., 2013 Physical Health Reduced GI symptoms Jennings, et al., 2017 Social and Emotional Competency Fewer problems in school Jennings, et al., 2011 Wellbeing N/A N/A Classroom Performance Increased self-efficacy Jennings, et al., 2013 Increased student engagement Jennings, et al., 2017 Improved student behavior Jennings, et al., 2017 Improved classroom efficiency Jennings, et al., 2017 Positive shifts in teachers’ motivational orientation Jennings, et al., 2011 Community Approach to Learning Mindfully (CALM) CALM is a 16-week program that offers 20-minute morning mindfulness and yoga sessions four days per week. The sessions are offered on site by a certified yoga teacher. They are designed as group practices to encourage teachers to cultivate a shared commitment to self-care and wellbeing, thereby fostering a positive work climate for both faculty and staff. The sessions focus on gentle yoga and are accessible to participants of all fitness levels. Adaptations enable participants to practice poses on a mat or in a chair and in work clothes. A typical 20-minute session includes centering exercises, breathing practices, movement, meditation, and intention setting.                Participants are encouraged to attend at least two sessions a week and to integrate the practices throughout the day. Teachers are given weekly practice cards that offer examples of the practices outside of the sessions to help teachers reduce their experiences of stress and enhance their wellbeing. The total training is roughly 21 hours. CALM was written by Alexis Harris, an assistant professor of education at the University of Virginia and long-time yoga teacher and practitioner. Like the CARE program, CALM is now available from CREATE for Education. The CALM program has been examined in one study,70 which showed the course increased Mindfulness; improved Mental Health and Wellbeing through increased positive affect; increased Physical Health through reduced cortisol and blood pressure levels; improved Social and Emotional Competency through increased self-regulation; and increased Classroom Effectiveness through improved classroom management. The study did not evaluate effects on Burnout.    Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction (MBSR) MBSR is one of the most popular and most commonly researched contemplative-based interventions designed to reduce stress. This is primarily achieved through two complementary approaches: the cultivation of one’s attention and the embodiment of nonjudgmental awareness. Specifically, the MBSR program encourages participants to explore how cultivating an open and receptive stance toward the present moment impacts their experiences of life’s challenges. The power of nonjudgmental awareness for participants is that it enables them to circumvent their conditioned coping mechanisms and, in so doing, directly experience the present moment as it unfolds. The MBSR program proceeds from the presumption that the direct experience of life provides the foundation for self-healing.71 MBSR was developed at the University of Massachusetts Medical Center by Jon Kabat-Zinn, a molecular biologist and professor of medicine. The program is now widely available and is often taught by individuals certified in the program’s instruction by one of several universities in the United States. The MBSR program is also available online for no charge. MBSR training tends to take place over eight weeks, including weekly sessions lasting two and a half hours and two day-long retreats integrated throughout the program. The program is approximately 36 hours in length. The impact of the MBSR program on teachers has been examined in five studies with results summarized in the following table: Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction (MBSR) Domain Variable Associated Studies Mindfulness Increased mindfulness Gold et al., 2010 Flook et al., 2013 Gouda et al., 2016 Rupprecht et al., 2017 Mental Health Reduced stress Gold et al., 2010 Reduced anxiety Gold et al., 2010 Reduced psychological distress Flook et al., 2013 Reduced cognitive and emotional strain Rupprecht et al., 2017 Fewer negative emotions Rupprecht et al., 2017 Burnout Reduced emotional exhaustion Flook et al., 2013 Reduced burnout Flook et al., 2013 Physical Health Improved sleep quality, including duration of sleep, level of sleep disturbance, latency to fall asleep, daytime dysfunction to sleep problems, and overall sleep quality Frank et al., 2014 Fewer medications used to fall asleep Frank et al., 2014 Social and Emotional Competency Improved affective self-regulation Frank et al., 2014 Reduced interpersonal problems Gouda et al., 2016 Enhanced emotional competence Rupprecht et al., 2017 Wellbeing Increased self-compassion Flook et al., 2013 More experiences of inner calm and balance Rupprecht et al., 2017 Classroom Performance Improvements in students’ observer-rated classroom behavior Flook et al., 2013 Improvements in teachers’ affective and attentional bias Flook et al., 2013 Increased self-efficacy Rupprecht et al., 2017 Stress Management and Relaxation Techniques (SMART) SMART is an adaptation of MBSR, using approximately 60% of the components and practices developed by Kabat-Zinn for that intervention. In addition the SMART program integrates lessons and practices focused on “emotion theory and regulation, forgiveness, kindness and compassion, and the application of mindfulness to teaching.”72 The SMART program includes 11 sessions that span eight weeks. Nine of the 11 sessions are held after school for two and a half hours each. Two day-long retreats are typically held on Saturdays during the program. Sessions usually consist of brief lectures and group discussions, question-and-answer opportunities, and mindfulness-based practices. Teachers are given guided practices to complete at home as well brief homework assignments, which include tasks such as monitoring their own emotional and behavioral responses throughout the day. The complete program is 36 hours in length. With support from the Impact Foundation, the SMART program was originally authored by Margaret Cullen, a licensed marriage and family therapist and certified MBSR teacher. It’s currently available in the United States from Passageworks Institute and in Canada from the University of British Columbia, Okanagan. The SMART program has been examined in four empirically based studies and is associated with the following positive results: Stress Management and Relaxation Techniques (SMART) in Education Domain  Variable  Associated Studies Mindfulness Increased mindfulness Benn et al., 2012 Roeser et al., 2013 Taylor et al., 2015 Crain et al., 2016 Burnout Decreased occupational stress Benn et al., 2012 Roeser et al., 2013 Taylor et al., 2015 Decreased burnout Roeser et al., 2013 Mental Health Decreased negative affect Benn et al., 2012 Crain et al., 2016 Taylor et al., 2015 Decreased rumination Crain et al, 2016 Decreased anxiety Benn et al., 2012 Roeser et al., 2013 Fewer depressive symptoms Benn et al., 2012 Roeser et al., 2013 Physical Health Increased sleep quality Crain et al., 2016 Increased quantity of sleep on weeknights Crain et al., 2016 Improvements in insomnia symptoms Crain et al., 2016 Less sleepiness during the day Crain et al., 2016 Reductions in cortisol levels Roeser et al., 2013 Social and Emotional Competency Increased emotional regulation Benn et al., 2012 Taylor et al., 2015 Increased dispositional forgiveness Taylor et al., 2015 Increased situational forgiveness Taylor et al., 2015 Increased empathic concern Benn et al., 2012 Wellbeing Increased satisfaction with family life Crain et al., 2016 Greater self-compassion Benn et al., 2012 Roeser et al., 2013 Increased positive affect Benn et al., 2012 Increased personal growth Benn et al., 2012 Classroom Effectiveness Increased self-efficacy in the classroom Benn et al., 2012 Enhanced attention and working memory Roeser et al., 2013 Increased efficacy for forgiving students Taylor et al., 2015 Increased use of positive feeling words to describe challenging students Taylor et al., 2015 .b (“Dot Be”) Foundations The .b Foundations course is an eight-week program taught by certified mindfulness instructors. It’s an adapted version of the MBSR program designed specifically for educators. Training includes one introductory presentation and eight 75-minute practice sessions and is approximately 12 hours in length. Practices sessions include modules that focus on body awareness, tracking thoughts, and cultivating self-compassion. The program also includes exercises that are explicitly targeted for educators. In addition to participating in the practice sessions, teachers are encouraged to engage in 10-40 minutes of mindfulness practice six days per week. Participants are invited to use the CDs from the book Mindfulness: A Practical Guide to Finding Peace in a Frantic World (Rodale, 2011) to support their home practices. The .b Foundations course is a product of the Mindfulness in Schools Project, a non-profit organization founded by three classroom teachers and mindfulness practitioners: Richard Burnett, Chris Cullen, and Chris O’Neil. The program is taught by certified instructors and has been examined in one empirically assessed study, which showed the course increased Mindfulness, improved Mental Health through reduced stress, and improved teacher Wellbeing through greater self-compassion.73 The other four domains were not examined in this study. MindUP This popular social and emotional learning and mindfulness program from the Goldie Hawn Foundation is primarily designed for students in grades K-8, but it includes curriculum-based training for teachers interested in using the program in their own classrooms. One study found that the training had some effect on teachers’ mindfulness and wellbeing levels, but positive impacts were mostly minimal. The researchers concluded that the “results suggest the need for the application of a specific program for teachers designed to boost the development of their socioemotional skills and their mindfulness.”74 Mindful Schools Mindful Schools also offers very popular teacher training programs, but to date no research has been conducted to empirically assess the impact of its training programs for teachers. Future Directions Research improvements Studies of mindfulness-based teacher training programs so far have shown promising positive results; however, a stronger and more reliable research base is needed to draw substantive conclusions. Future studies should include large-scale randomized-controlled trials and include long-term follow-up assessments. Researchers also should focus on developing more universal measures to assess the impact of mindfulness-based interventions. A range of psychometric scales currently are used in the existing literature, which makes it difficult to compare the studies and to aggregate the data through meta-analyses. Additionally, future researchers must clarify the mechanisms of change that lie at the heart of these interventions. More data is needed to assess whether different styles of practice are associated with unique benefits. Eventually, researchers should compare the existing programs and their outcomes. Program improvements Many of the current mindfulness-based intervention programs for educators place a great deal of emphasis on intrapersonal practices and processes. In the development of future programs for teachers, closer attention should be placed on interpersonal dynamics, especially as they arise in the classroom. Particular attention should be paid to mindfulness-based pedagogical practices as well as classroom-appropriate de-escalation strategies. Classroom-based support could be offered in the form of classroom observations and individual coaching. Similarly, program developers should spend additional time integrating programs for teachers, students, families, and administrators so that school-wide shifts might be achieved. The developers of the existing empirically validated programs could spend time assessing how their efforts might be combined to create programs for entire school communities and how these programs can be made available in accessible, cost-effective, and culturally-sensitive ways. It is also important to ensure that implementing mindfulness-based supports for teachers does not eclipse efforts to reduce the stressors imposed on educators and their students in the first place. Researchers should spend time assessing the limits of mindfulness-based programs and consider how they might use the available data to advocate for systemic changes needed to better support school communities. Conclusions Research on the impact of teacher mindfulness training is in its earliest stages; however, many of the initial studies offer optimistic results. Specifically, mindfulness training for teachers appears helpful in reducing teachers’ experiences of stress and burnout, growing their social and emotional competence, and enhancing their physical health and wellbeing. These benefits appear to positively impact students as well by increasing students’ classroom engagement and improving their classroom behavior. Mindfulness training appears less effective in supporting teachers who face more significant mental health challenges like anxiety and depression. The data also reveals limited impact on teachers’ classroom performance. Thus, it may be best to embed mindfulness-based teacher training within larger professional development programs rather than relying on it as a cure-all for the many challenges that teachers face. Notably, the interventions included here take on a variety of forms, including, for example, daily 20-minute yoga sessions before school, eight-week intensive courses, and day-long professional development experiences spread throughout the school year. Additional research is needed to determine the benefits and drawbacks of each approach. As researchers continue to explore the nuances of mindfulness-based training for teachers, it may be worth considering how these efforts could be combined to create school-wide interventions. Teachers could, for example, engage in intensive courses and then expand upon that learning in daily yoga sessions and subsequent professional development experiences. Considering how the current evidence-based approaches complement one another could lead to more robust and impactful support for teachers. Author Megan Downey is the contemplative schools coordinator at the Contemplative Sciences Center. Footnotes ^ Greenberg, M. T., Brown, J. L., & Abenavoli, R. M. (2016). Teacher stress and health effects on teachers, students, and schools. Edna Bennett Pierce Prevention Research Center, Pennsylvania State University. Retrieved from http://prevention.psu.edu/uploads/files/rwjf430428.pdf; Gallup. (2014). State of American Schools. Retrieved from http://www.gallup.com/services/178709/state-america-schools-report.aspx. ^ Bellingrath, S., Weigl, T., & Kudielka, B. M. (2009). Chronic work stress and exhaustion is associated with higher allostatic load in female school teachers: Original research report. Stress, 12(1), 37-48. ^ Milkie, M. A., & Warner, C. H. (2011). Classroom learning environments and the mental health of first grade children. Journal of Health and Social Behavior, 52, 4 –22. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0022146510394952. ^ Oberle, E., & Schonert-Reichl, K. A. (2016). Stress contagion in the classroom? The link between classroom teacher burnout and morning cortisol in elementary school students. Social Science & Medicine, 159, 30 –37. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.socscimed.2016.04.031 ^ Harmsen, R., Helms-Lorenz, M., Maulana, R., van Veen, K., & van Veldhoven, M. (2019). Measuring general and specific stress causes and stress responses among beginning secondary school teachers in the Netherlands. International Journal of Research & Method in Education, 42(1), 91-108. doi 10.1080/1743727X.2018.1462313 ^ Harmsen et al., 2019; Greenberg, M. T., et al., 2016; Hoglund, W. L., Klingle, K. E., & Hosan, N. E. (2015). Classroom risks and resources: Teacher burnout, classroom quality and children's adjustment in high needs elementary schools. Journal of School Psychology, 53(5), 337-357. ^ Harmsen et al., 2019. ^ La Paro, K. M., Hamre, B. K., Locasale-Crouch, J., Pianta, R. C., Bryant, D., Early, D., ... & Burchinal, M. (2009). Quality in kindergarten classrooms: Observational evidence for the need to increase children's learning opportunities in early education classrooms. Early Education and Development, 20(4), 657-692. ^ Cozolino, L. (2013). The social neuroscience of education: Optimizing attachment and learning in the classroom. New York City, New York: WW Norton & Company, 17. ^ Roeser, R.W., Skinner, E., Beers, J., & Jennings, P. (2012). Mindfulness training and teachers’ professional development: An emerging area of research and practice. Child Development Perspectives, 6(2), 167-173. ^ Kabat-Zinn, J. (2009). Full catastrophe living: Using the wisdom of your body and mind to face stress, pain, and illness. New York City, New York: Bantam Books. ^ Tang, Y. Y., Hölzel, B. K., & Posner, M. I. (2015). The neuroscience of mindfulness meditation. Nature Reviews Neuroscience, 16(4), 213-225. ^ Kabat-Zinn, J. (2003). Mindfulness-based interventions in context: Past, present, and future. Clinical Psychology: Science and Practice, 10(2), 145. ^ Mind and Life Education Research Network (MLERN). (2012). Contemplative practices and mental training: Prospects for American education. Child Development Perspectives, 6(2), 147. ^ Jennings, P. A. (2015). Mindfulness for teachers: Simple skills for peace and productivity in the classroom. New York, NY: WW Norton & Company, 2. ^ Siegel, D. J., Siegel, M. W., & Parker, S. C. (2016). Internal education and the roots of resilience: Relationships and reflection as the new R’s of education. In K.A. Schonert- Reichl & R.W. Roeser (Eds.) Handbook of Mindfulness in Education (p 48). New York, NY: Springer. ^ Jennings, 2015. ^ Siegel et al., 2016. ^ On increases in teachers’ mindfulness, see: Beshai, S., McAlpine, L., Weare, K., & Kuyken, W. (2015). A non-randomised feasibility trial assessing the efficacy of a mindfulness-based intervention for teachers to reduce stress and improve well-being. Mindfulness. 7(1), 198-208.doi: 10.1007/s12671-015-0436-1; Crain, T. L., Schonert-Reichl, K. A., & Roeser, R. W. ( 2016). Cultivating teacher mindfulness: Effects of a randomized controlled trial on work, home, and sleep outcomes. Journal of Occupational Health Psychology, 22(2), 138-152. doi: 10.1037/ocp0000043; Frank, J. L., Reibel, D., Broderick, P., Cantrell, T., & Metz, S. (2014). The effectiveness of Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction on educator stress and well-being: Results from a pilot study. Mindfulness. 6(2), 208-216. doi: 10.1007/s12671-013-0246-2; Flook, L., Goldberg, S. B., Pinger, L., Bonus, K., & Davidson, R. J. (2013). Mindfulness for teachers: A pilot study to assess effects on stress, burnout, and teaching efficacy. Mind, Brain, and Education, 7(3), 182-195. doi: 10.1111/mbe.12026; Gold, E., Smith, A., Hopper, I., Herne, D., Tansey, G., & Hulland, C. (2010). Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction (MBSR) for primary school teachers. Journal of Child and Family Studies, 19(2), 184-189. doi: 10.1007/s10826-009-9344-0; Harris, A. R., Jennings, P. A., Katz, D. A., Abenavoli, R. M., & Greenberg, M. T. (2015). Promoting stress management and wellbeing in educators: Feasibility and efficacy of a school-based yoga and mindfulness intervention. Mindfulness, 7(1), 143-154. doi: 10.1007/s12671-015-0451-2; Jennings, P. A., Brown, J. L., Frank, J. L., Doyle, S., Oh, Y., Davis, R., . . . Cham, H. ( 2017). Impacts of the CARE for Teachers program on teachers social and emotional competence and classroom interactions. Journal of Educational Psychology, 109(7), 1010-1028. doi: 10.1037/edu0000187; Jennings, P. A., Frank, J. L., Snowberg, K. E., Coccia, M. A., & Greenberg, M. T. (2013). Improving classroom learning environments by Cultivating Awareness and Resilience in Education (CARE): Results of a randomized controlled trial. School Psychology Quarterly, 28(4), 374-390. doi: 10.1037/spq0000035; Jennings, P. A., Snowberg, K. E., Coccia, M. A., & Greenberg, M. T. (2011). Improving classroom learning environments by Cultivating Awareness and Resilience in Education (CARE): Results of two pilot studies. Journal of Classroom Interaction, 46(1), 37-48.; Roeser, R. W., Schonert-Reichl, K. A., Jha, A., Cullen, M., Wallace, L., Wilensky, R., . . . Harrison, J. (2013). Mindfulness training and reductions in teacher stress and burnout: Results from two randomized, waitlist-control field trials. Journal of Educational Psychology, 105(3), 787-804. doi:10.1037/A0032093; Rupprecht, S. P., Peter|Walach, Harald. ( 2017). Mind the teachers! The impact of mindfulness training on self-regulation and classroom performance in a sample of German school teachers. European Journal of Educational Research, 6(4), 565-581. doi: 10.12973/eu-jer.6.4.565; Taylor, C., Harrison, J., Haimovitz, K., Oberle, E., Thomson, K., Schonert-Reichl, K., & Roeser, R. W. (2015). Examining ways that a mindfulness-based intervention reduces stress in public school teachers: a mixed-methods study. Mindfulness, 7(1), 115-129. doi: 10.1007/s12671-015-0425-4; Kemeny, M.E., Foltz C., Cavanagh J.F., Cullen, M., Giese-Davis J., Jennings, P.,…Ekman, P. (2012). Contemplative/emotion training reduces negative emotional behavior and promotes prosocial responses. Emotion, 12(2), 338–350. doi 10.1037/a0026118; Reiser, J.E. & McCarthy, C.J. (2018). Preliminary investigation on a stress prevention and mindfulness group for teachers. The Journal for Specialists in Group Work, 43(1) 2-34., .doi 10.1080/01933922.2017.1338811. For the study that found no significant shift in teachers’ mindfulness, see: Jennings et al., 2011. ^ Franco, C., Mañas, I., Cangas, A. J., & Moreno, E. (2010). Reducing teachers’ psychological distress through a mindfulness training program. The Spanish Journal of Psychology. 13(2), 655-666. doi: 10.1017/S1138741600002328; Flook et al., 2013. ^ Beshai et al., 2015; Benn, R., Akiva, T., Arel, S., & Roeser, R. W. (2012). Mindfulness training effects for parents and educators of children with special needs. Developmental Psychology, 48(5), 1476-1487. doi: 10.1037/a0027537; Gold et al., 2010; Roeser, R. W., Schonert-Reichl, K. A., Jha, A., Cullen, M., Wallace, L., Wilensky, R., . . . Harrison, J. (2013). Mindfulness training and reductions in teacher stress and burnout: Results from two randomized, waitlist-control field trials. Journal of Educational Psychology, 105(3), 787-804. doi:10.1037/A0032093; Taylor et al., 2015; Rupprecht et al., 2017; Anderson, V.L., Gevinson, E.M., Barker, W., & Kiewra, K.R. (1999). The effects of meditation on teachers’ perceived occupational stress, state and trait anxiety, and burnout. School Psychology Quarterly, 14(1), 3-25. doi 10.1037/h0088995. ^ Flook et al., 2013; Jennings et al., 2017; Jennings et al., 2013; Roeser et al., 2013; Anderson et al., 1999. ^ Crain et al., 2016. ^ Franco et al., 2010. ^ For significant reductions in teachers’ experiences of anxiety, see: Benn et al., 2012; Franco et al., 2010; Kemeny et al., 2012; Anderson et al., 1999. For insignificant effects on teachers’ experiences of anxiety, see: Gold et al., 2010; Frank et al., 2014; Gouda, S., Luong, M. T., Schmidt, S., & Bauer, J. ( 2016). Students and teachers benefit from Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction in a school-embedded pilot study. Frontiers in Psychology, 7(590). doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2016.00590; Jennings et al., 2017. ^ For significant reductions in teachers’ experiences of depression, see: Benn et al., 2012; Franco et al., 2010; Gold et al., 2010; Roeser et al., 2013. For insignificant effects on teachers’ experiences of depression, see: Frank et al., 2014; Jennings et al., 2011; Jennings et al., 2013; Jennings et al., 2017. ^ For significant reductions in teachers’ experiences of somatization, see: Franco et al., 2010; Kemeny et al., 2012. For insignificant effects on teachers’ experiences of somatization, see: Frank et al., 2014. ^ For significant reductions in teachers’ experiences of negative affect, see: Benn et al., 2012; Crain et al., 2016; Rupprecht et al., 2017; Taylor et al., 2015; Kemeny et al., 2012. For insignificant effects on teachers’ experiences of negative affect, see: Jennings et al., 2011; Jennings et al., 2013; Jennings et al., 2017; Harris et al., 2015. ^ Crain et al., 2016; Frank et al., 2014; Jennings et al., 2017. ^ Roeser et al., 2013; Harris et al., 2015. ^ Roeser et al., 2013; Harris et al., 2015. ^ Jennings et al., 2017; Harris et al., 2015. ^ Roeser et al., 2013. ^ Benn et al., 2012; Frank et al., 2014; Harris et al., 2015; Taylor et al., 2015; Rupprecht et al., 2017. ^ Franco et al., 2010. ^ Benn et al., 2012. ^ Kemeny et al., 2012. ^ Taylor et al., 2015; Kemeny et al., 2012. ^ Ramsey, A. T., & Jones, E. E. (2015). Minding the interpersonal gap: Mindfulness-based interventions in the prevention of ostracism. Consciousness and Cognition, 31, 24-34. doi: 10.1016/j.concog.2014.10.003. ^ Taylor et al., 2015. ^ Rupprecht et al., 2017. ^ Beshai et al., 2015; Benn et al., 2012; Frank et al., 2014; Flook et al., 2013; Roeser et al., 2013. ^ Crain et al., 2016 ^ Benn et al., 2012. ^ For significant increases in teachers’ experiences of positive affect, see: Benn et al., 2012; Harris et al., 2015; Kemeny et al., 2012. For insignificant effects on teachers’ experiences of positive affect, see: Jennings et al., 2011; Jennings et al., 2013. ^ Jennings et al., 2011. ^ Jennings et al., 2017. ^ For significant improvements in teachers’ classroom management skills, see: Harris et al., 2015. For insignificant effects on teachers’ classroom management skills, see: Jennings et al., 2011. ^ For significant increases in teachers’ sense of self-efficacy, see: Benn et al., 2012; Jennings et al., 2013; Rupprecht et al., 2017. For insignificant effects on teachers’ sense of self-efficacy, see: Gouda et al., 2016; Jennings et al., 2017; Jennings et al., 2011. ^ Gouda et al., 2016. ^ Gouda et al., 2016. ^ Reiser et al., 2018. ^ Jennings et al., 2013 ^ Flook et al., 2013; Jennings et al., 2017; Singh, N. N., & Karazsia, B.T. (2013). Mindfulness training for teachers changes the behavior of their preschool students. Research in Human Development, 10(3), 211-233. doi 10.1080/15427609.2013.818484. ^ Le, T. N., & Alefaio, D. ( 2018). Hawaii educators’ experiences in a professional development course on mindfulness. Professional Development in Education. doi: 10.1080/19415257.2018.1474485. ^ Le et al., 2018; Grant, K. C. ( 2017). From teaching to being: The qualities of a mindful teacher. Childhood Education, 93(2), 147-152. doi 10.1080/00094056.2017.1300493. ^ Ergas, O., Hadar, L. L., Albelda, N., & Levit-Binnun, N. (2018). Contemplative neuroscience as a gateway to mindfulness: Findings from an educationally framed teacher learning program. Mindfulness, 9(6), 1723-1735. doi: 10.1007/s12671-018-0913-4. ^ Schussler, D.L, Jennings, P.A., Sharp, J.E., Frank, J.L. (2016). Improving teacher awareness and well-being through CARE: A qualitative analysis of the underlying mechanisms. Mindfulness, 7, 130-142. doi: 10.1007/s12671-015-0422-7. ^ Schussler et al., 2016; Sharp, J. E., & Jennings, P. A. (2015). Strengthening teacher presence through mindfulness: What educators say about the Cultivating Awareness and Resilience in Education (CARE) Program. Mindfulness, 7, 209-218. doi: 10.1007/s12671-015-0474-8; Miller, J., & Nozawa, A. (2002). Meditating teachers: a qualitative study. Journal of In-service Education, 28(1), 179-192. doi: 10.1080/13674580200200177. ^ Sharp et al., 2015. ^ Sharp et al., 2015. ^ Miller et al., 2002. ^ Napoli, M., (2004). Mindfulness training for teachers: A pilot program. Complementary Health Practice Review, 9(1), 31-42. doi 10.1177/1076167503253435; Damico, N., McKinzie Bennett, C., & Fulchini, A. ( 2018). ‘Show me what it’s supposed to look like’: Exploring mindfulness-based support for early career teachers in an era of neoliberal reform. Policy Futures in Education. doi 1478210318765322. ^ Ergas, 2018. ^ Napoli, 2004. ^ Grant, 2017; Sharp et al., 2015. ^ Schussler et al., 2016; Grant, 2017. ^ Sharp et al., 2015. ^ Jennings et al., 2013. ^ Harris et al., 2015. ^ Kabat-Zinn, J. (2011). Some reflections on the origins of MBSR, skillful means, and the trouble with maps. Contemporary Buddhism, 12(01), 281-306. ^ Benn, et al., 2012. ^ Beshai et al., 2015. ^ de Carvalho, J. S., Pinto, A. M., & Marôco, J. ( 2016). Results of a mindfulness-based social-emotional learning program on Portuguese elementary students and teachers: A quasi-experimental study. Mindfulness, 8(2), 337-350. doi 10.1007/s12671-016-0603-z.