Gyalyong Düchen: Bhutan’s National Day

One of the most important national events in Bhutan is Gyalyong Düchen (རྒྱལ་ཡོངས་དུས་ཆེན་), or National Day. It commemorates the installation of Sir Ugyen Wangchuck (1862-1926) as the first hereditary monarch of Bhutan on 17 December, 1907 in the congregation hall of Punakha Dzong. The hall was decorated with wall hangings, banners and silk brocades and three thrones were installed, occupied by King Ugyen Wangchuck, the 50th Je Khenpo Jampé Shenyen (1861-1916) and the British representative John Claude White (1853-1918). Flanked by rows of clergy and state officials, the remainder of the sacred space was filled with officers and spectators.

Over the course of a traditional zhugdrel ceremony, guests presented their gifts to King Ugyen Wangchuck. The pinnacle of the ceremony was the endorsement of the document containing the contract for the new monarchial system. The state clerk read out aloud the oath of allegiance to the new King written on a scroll. Then, the Je Khenpo placed the large seal of the Zhapdrung’s Ngachudrukma at the top of the document in vermillion. The others followed suit to put their seals on the document in black ink. The document bore altogether fifty different seals, and can be translated as follows:

To the feet of the precious and high judge of the dual system,

It is submitted that in our country, Bhutan, in former times whoever came forth from among lamas and masters of the monastery, councillors and regional governors served as the great Desi. Apart from this, there was no hereditary monarch. Now, therefore, the abbot, monastic masters, the congregation, state council, regional governors and all officials and subjects unanimously and sincerely endorse firmly and conclusively the unalterable oath, the purport of which is, Bhutan’s overlord, the Tongsa Pönlop Sir Ugyen Wangchuck is enthroned as the hereditary monarch, through common agreement and as evident to all gods and men, in the Palace of Great Bliss of Punakha on 17 December 1907, 13th day of the 11th month of our own year of Earth Monkey, coinciding with an auspicious astrological conjunction. In pursuant to this, we, the above mentioned, lamas and officials, subjects and followers, all great and small, place our integrity as witness in order to offer service and support to the king who has been enthroned on the golden throne and to the succession of his royal heirs. Apart from this, if there are issues arising due to new talk from evil intention and duplicitous accusations, then such a person will expelled from the common fold. In acceptance of the unalterable [conditions] above, the common seal of the abbot, masters and congregation, ... the seal of the three regions of Darkar.

The National Day observed annually Bhutan in modern times is a celebration of this auspicious and momentous beginning of a new chapter in the nation’s history. According to the information in the Kuensel archives, the National Day was celebrated for the first time on 17 December 1971, sixty-four years after King Ugyen Wangchuck was crowned. Since then, the celebrations continued to become more elaborate and festive and the day was attributed with great national significance. Today, as we celebrate 108 years since King Ugyen Wangchuck was crowned, the day has become a sacred and joyful occasion for the Bhutanese people to come together to celebrate the blessings and achievements of the past and to reinforce their commitment to carry on the legacies of national forefathers and work even harder towards common goals.


Karma Phuntsho is the Director of Shejun Agency for Bhutan’s Cultural Documentation and Research, the President of the Loden Foundation and the author of The History of Bhutan. The piece was initially published in Bhutan’s national newspaper Kuensel in a series called Why We Do What We Do.




An explanation of the history and significance of Bhutan's national day, celebrated annually on December 17th.

Collection Bhutan Cultural Library
Visibility Public - accessible to all site users (default)
Author Karma Phuntsho
Editor Ariana Maki
Year published 2017
Original year published 2016